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当前疫情下,“下半场”人力资源合规事务预案

劳动与人力资源

      “新冠”疫情终究会过去,情势也正在好转,但其已经造成的影响将在近期和中期的运营中陆续呈现出来。就此,我们谨提供如下参考意见,供各用人单位在结合自身情况制定应对预案时参考。

      The Novel Coronavirus outbreak will eventually end, and the situation is getting better now, but its impact will be emerging in the near and coming future. In this connection, we would like to share our comments below for your reference in formulating your plans.

01 基本原则 Principles

1.1 除国家层面的相关规定,各地目前所发布的相关地方性规定普遍存在“特事特办”的特征,由此导致从“历史沿革”、“法律渊源”或“文义注释”等角度对相关政策的解读容易出现“误读”。

      Except for the national regulations, many local rules and policies are generally issued under the guideline of special treatment for exceptional cases, which may easily result in misinterpretations thereof if you try to interpret them from the perspectives of historical evolution, legal origins or context annotation, etc.

       我们倾向于认为,较为务实的应对策略不是期待一个“绝对正确”的解读 [1] , 而是承认和接受现状的不确定性,基于对业务必须性和优先级的考量, 秉持“底线思维” [2] 规划和开展有关工作。对于存疑的问题在条件允许的情况下宜尽量搁置,避免无谓的争议或消耗,给予容错空间,等待后续澄清口径,再行定论、更正或跟进。

      We tend to believe that it is more pragmatic to admit and accept the uncertainty in the current situation instead of expecting an absolutely correct interpretation. In addition, it is also advisable to utilize bottom-line thinking when planning and conducting your potential action plans by consolidating the necessity and priority of business. As far as the condition permits, it is advisable to table issues in question, tolerate reasonable errors and avoid unnecessary back-and-forth argument or consumption. In so doing, employers may have a better position to make further decisions, corrections or follow-ups after those issues are  clarified in the near future.

1.2 目前的主要基调是优先控制疫情,保护劳动者的合法权益,同时兼顾企业的生存和发展需要。我们理解很多企业已经遭遇了“迫在眉睫”的挑战(包括用工成本),但,单纯地进行“情绪宣泄”,或寄希望于通过修改规则来解决问题恐过于“理想化”。

      The main coping measure at present is to control the epidemic as a priority. Meanwhile, employees’ legitimate rights should be protected, and the survival and development of enterprises will also be reasonably considered accordingly. We understand that many enterprises are facing imminent challenges from many aspects (including labor costs). However, it is too idealistic if you only revert with emotional reactions or expect to fix the problems by changing the rules.

      我们建议,将策略聚焦于争取地方性的后续优惠政策,甚至同样是“特事特办”式的“精准”扶持,可能会更加“接地气”。

      Instead, it would be more practical to focus on seeking preferential benefits subsequent to the local policies and special support arising from the exceptional cases.

1.3 类似于 2003 年的 SARS,现有疫情对于宏观经济的影响是暂时和有限的, 但对于特定行业,考虑其原有的生命周期和发展态势,需要尽快结合(1) 客户需求;(2)交付能力;及(3)运营成本等要素进行综合考量,以便 对接下来中长期的雇佣安排作出规划。若确实可能需要在一个阶段“轻装 上阵”的,结合前述 1.1 条和 1.2 条的分析后,再行作出“商业决断”。

      Similar to SARS which occurred in 2003, this epidemic’s impact on China’s macro economy will be temporary and limited. But for some specific industries, considering their lifecycle and development trends, it is necessary to comprehensively taking into consideration the following elements: (1) customer needs; (2) delivery capabilities; and (3) operational costs and other relevant factors, so as to make a proper employment arrangement in the mid-and-long term. If potential redundancy is really necessary under some circumstances, the employer shall make a business decision pursuant to Sections 1.1 and 1.2 above.

02 关于用工成本管控 Labor Cost Control

2.1 既存政策或口径的适用将会产生如下“显性”成本:

      The application of existing policies or guidelines will incur the following explicit costs:

(1)薪酬福利类

      Remuneration and Benefits

1)因春节假期延长 [3] 或延迟复工 [4] 而需支付的“正常出勤工资”或“劳动合同约定工资”;

     Attendance salary or salary specified in the employment contract should be paid despite the extension of the Chinese New Year or delayed resumption of work;

2)因隔离治疗期间、医学观察期间以及因政府实施隔离措施[5] 或采取其他紧急措施导致不能提供正常劳动期间而需支付的劳动报酬 [6] ;

     Compensation that should be paid during his/her quarantine treatment or medical observation, unable to fulfill his/her employment duties as a result of the government’s quarantine measures or other emergency measures;

3)烦请垂注,上述期间的社会保险及公积金仍需正常缴纳;

     Social insurance premiums and housing fund contributions should still be paid during the periods set forth in items (1) and (2) above;

4)因春节假期延长期间加班或提前复工而产生的“加班费” [7] , 并且特殊工时(即综合工时和不定时工时)在此种状态下 能否正常适用目前仍然存疑;

     Overtime pay during the extension of the Chinese New Year holiday or resumption of work ahead of schedule, but it is still questionable as to whether non-standard working hours arrangements (i.e., comprehensive working hours arrangement and irregular/non-fixed working hours arrangement) can apply under this circumstance;

5)在此期间,劳动合同到期的,分别顺延至职工医疗期期满、医学观察期期满、隔离期期满或者政府采取的紧急措施结 束,由此产生的顺延薪酬成本;及

     Payroll costs during the extension due to the medical treatment period, medical observation period, quarantine period or emergency measures taken by the government following the expiration of the employment contract; and

6)地方政府设定的特别福利假(例如某地设定的子女看护假期)。

     Special beneficial leave entitlement stipulated by the local government (e.g., leave for child-care set by some  cities).

(2)待遇及劳动保护类

      Treatment and Labor Protection

1)依照本单位工作年限计算的医疗期 [8] ;

     The medical treatment period calculated according to employee’s years of service;

2)劳动保护支出(包括但不限于必要护具、体温计、消毒事务、宣传教育等),具体类别和消耗需视乎当地监管口径确定;及

     Labor protection expenditure (including but not limited to necessary protective equipment, thermometers, disinfection affairs, protection education), with the specific category and consumption being determined according to local regulatory rules; and

3)企业自主设定的特别补贴或津贴。

     Special allowances or subsidies provided by enterprises.

2.2 进一步,考虑到监管口径及客户需求变动等,尚有如下“隐性”成本可能会伴随发生:

     Furthermore, considering probable changes in coming regulatory rules and customer needs, the following "hidden" costs may be incurred:

(1)运营维持类

     Operation and Maintenance Cost

1)人员缺位而产生的机会成本及被耽搁的运营收入;

     Opportunity cost and delayed operating revenue caused by staff shortage;

2)人员闲置(非停工停产状态)产生的成本;及

     Cost of abnormal idling time (which is not the suspension recognized by law); and

3)因健康或企业发展等顾虑导致的低绩效成本。

     Cost caused by underperformance due to health or business development concerns.

(2)管理支出类

      Management Expenses

1) 劳动关系个案(包括但不限于病假、劳动纪律及潜在解除等事务)应对产生的时间及管理花费;

     Time and management costs incurred for employment relationship cases (in relation to sick leave, labor discipline and potential termination, etc.);

2) 疫情防控和维稳而产生的时间及管理花费 [9] ;及

     Time and management costs associated with epidemic control and social stabilization; and

3)专业咨询费用。

     Professional consulting service cost.

2.3 尽管我们即将提及的某些潜在“开支缩减”策略在满足相关法律条件的情况下可以单方采取,但考虑到现有的舆论导向和员工士气(无法单纯靠设定KPI 的方式来提振绩效表现),企业的具体决定还需结合自身的企业文化和风险偏好作出。同时,我们也特别提示,“开支缩减”策略在以往的实操中也将往往导致“莫非定律”的效果被放大,可能会导致某些“逆向选择”的出现。故,即使享有单方酌定权,但仍与员工开诚布公地进行协商,避免无谓的纠纷和对抗 [10] ,一直是我们的优先推荐 [11] 。

     Even though some of the cost saving strategies that we are going to introduce below can be used when the legal requirements have been met, considering the existing public opinion and employee morale which cannot be simply boosted through utilizing KPIs, pertinent decisions shall be made by duly weighing its own corporate culture and risk preference. Meanwhile, it is notable that cost saving strategies in the past practice often led to the magnification of the effect of "Murphy's Law", and thus caused some "adverse selection". Hence, it is always our first recommendation for employers to openly negotiate with employees to avoid unnecessary disputes and confrontations, despite its right of discretion.

2.4 在现有情况下,针对上述所述项目,综合考量后,企业可以尝试如下策略:

     In the current situation, employers would try the following strategies after a comprehensive consideration,

(1)由于对延迟复工期间所产生的加班(包括在家办公)的认定尚存有一定疑问 [12] ,故,有关加班待遇的给予可以尝试暂缓,先行向员工承诺以执法部门(即劳动行政部门)或司法部门(即人民法院)的进一步口径为准。

     Given the existing doubts towards to the nature of overtime before the designated date of work resumption (including working from home), the treatment for the same can be deferred for the time being. Instead, employer may promise employees its strict adherence to the official information or rules which are going to be issued by the law enforcement department (i.e., the labor administration department’) or the judiciary (i.e., the court) in a later stage.

       若相关后续口径以成文形式明确界定为“加班”的,鉴于此类加班一般均许可调休,企业可在后续安排调休[13] 。

       If the follow-up rules clearly define the same as "overtime" in written form, as this sort of overtime can be offset by time off, the employer can arrange equivalent compensatory leave later.

(2)有特殊工时资质的企业,可尝试向相关劳动行政部门进行求证, 以确定特殊工时在春节延长假期和延迟复工期内能否正常适用, 若可以,则同样可以节省加班成本。

      Employers who have eligibility for non-standard working hours arrangements can verify with local labor administrative departments in order to confirm whether this working arrangement is applicable during the extension of the Spring Festival holiday and delayed resumption of work. If so, the cost of overtime pay can be saved.

      对于没有特殊工时资质的企业,目前已经产生的加班成本无法在 将来进行统筹或抵消,但考虑到政策利好(即多地基于特殊情势之需要暂时放松了特殊工时的审批),建议尽快进行申请,如此,对将来整个审批周期(一般为一年)内的加班成本都能产生“减 负”效益。

      For employers not eligible to utilize such working hours arrangement, the cost of overtime that has incurred cannot be offset or shifted in the future, but considering the good side of the policy (i.e., the examination and approval for non-standard working hours arrangements has been eased in many localities for current special situation), it is still recommended to apply for the approval as soon as possible, and thereby reducing the burden arising from overtime cost within the future approved period (normally one year).

(3)对于因需求不足而临时性产生的冗员,或因人员缺位而导致的临时性交付能力不足,可以尝试通过“外包”或“借调”的方式与关联公司或同行寻求进行调剂 [14] 。

       For the temporary overstaffing due to insufficient demand, or the deficiency in delivery capacity caused by unplanned worker absence, employers can try to seek for staff supplementation with affiliates or peer companies through "outsourcing" or "secondment".

(4)企业亦可以尝试经由协商,通过在家办公、安排带薪年休假、缩短工时、奖金缓发、临时性降薪等措施抵消因交通管制、隔离或现金流短缺等情形造成的掣肘 [15] 。

      Through negotiation, employers can also offset constraints caused by traffic restrictions, quarantine, or cash flow shortage by taking measures such as working from home, taking paid annual leave, reducing working hours, delaying bonus payment, temporary salary cuts.

(5)此外,多地均已出台涉及劳动关系的优惠政策(例如社保延期缴纳期限、发放稳岗补贴或返还失业保险、给予培训补贴等),企业亦可尝试向所在地相关窗口咨询及办理。

      In addition, preferential policies related to labor relations have been introduced in many localities (e.g., postponing the contribution date for Social Security, returning unemployment insurance premiums or granting for employment stabilization subsidies, providing training subsidy, etc.). For this, employers can also consult the authorized local authority and submit required materials for filing.

(6)最后,若上述措施仍不能有效控制成本,财务指标继续处于“入不敷出”的,恐需考虑停工停产或业务缩减事宜。但,我们郑重提示,“停工停产”对人力资源成本的节省效果有限,企业仍需负担相关薪酬成本及社保成本 [16] ,而且,一旦停工期间较长,往往重挫士气,复工时恐难以召回其中的骨干人员。

       Last but not the least, if the above measures are still unable to control costs effectively and businesses continue to struggle to make ends meet, it is high time to consider suspension or business cancellation. However, please bear in mind that the "suspension of operation" has a very limited impact on labor cost saving because employers still need to afford social security contributions and remuneration. Also, once the suspension period lasts too long, it may significantly undermine employee morale, and thus it could be less possible to call back the core talent to reassume their duties.

(7)依照我们的过往经验,除政府责令整改外,企业主动发起的“停 工停产”往往是为了“业务缩减”,乃至“退出”的“过渡”阶段。就此, 因为其牵涉潜在的群体事件管控,我们将在下一章节中详述。

      According to our experience, apart from the rectification order made by local authorities, the suspension initiated by enterprises is always for downsizing purpose and it even will be the transition of business deregistration. Because it matters as to collective dispute control, we will elaborate the same in the following section.

03 关于停工及人员裁减 Suspension of Operation and Redundancy

3.1 涉及群体性事件的处置,特别是人员裁减,目前正处于“风口浪尖”。但, 若企业因为自身经营周期或因本次疫情确实遭受重创的,停工停产或人 员裁减决定本身是“求生”的商业决定,不宜过度解读,可以尝试与当地 主管部门沟通,再行定夺。

      The handling of collective dispute incidents, especially redundancy matters, will be quite a challenge these days due to political concerns. However, if an enterprise is indeed suffering heavy losses because of its life-cycle or the coronavirus outbreak, it is a reasonable business decision to proceed with suspension or redundancy for survival which should not be overread, and the employer may make its final call after consulting local authorities.

      需要特别注意的是,某些扶持政策是以企业少裁员或者不裁员为前提, 企业亦需将此纳入考量范畴。

      Please kindly note that some supportive policies are conditioned on fewer layoffs or even no layoff. Employers may have to give up such support if they decide to proceed with redundancy.

3.2 现有法律法规对于停工停产并无清楚的界定,亦缺乏统一的标准应当如 何发动停工停产流程。依照我们既往的实践经验,除业务周期特性或产 线维修等情形,在遭遇客观情况发生重大变化的情况下 [17] ,针对整个用 人单位或受影响整体业务部门,经过决策机关(一般为董事会)的决议, 可以进行停工停产。

      The existing laws and regulations provide neither a clear definition on suspension nor a unified standard for how to initiate the process. Per our practical experience, except for business seasons or production line maintenance, under the provision of ‘major changes in objective circumstances’, employers can determine to suspend or shut down the entire employing unit or certain departments affected, based upon the resolution made by the decision-making body (generally the board).

3.3 如下问题在考虑和执行停工停产时需要预先准备:

      Preparations need to be made for the following issues in advance when considering and implementing action plans,

(1)对于组织架构调整、业务裁撤及订单锐减等情形是否可以适用? 实践中对此存有极大争议。由于停工停产一般不会导致劳动关系的直接解除(尽管其可能是“前奏”),我们倾向于结合具体案情做适当“宽松”解释。当然,其法律风险在于,若事后无法为停工停产的实施获得合理理由的,员工有权要求企业弥补其因此遭受的收入损失。

      There is still a controversy in practice over whether this provision is applicable to organizational restructuring, business cuts and sharp reduction of orders. Since suspension does not generally lead to the immediate dismissal of employment (though it probably could be a prelusion), we tend to broaden the interpretation properly to include these circumstances on a case by case basis. Its legal risk is that employees have the right to be reimbursed for the lost salary if their employer cannot justify the suspension afterwards.

(2)停工停产是否可以针对特定人员或团队?这种情形我们担心会稍有牵强,如作为一种压力策略的,有采用的可能性;但,若进一步升级,在争议解决流程中,其合法性往往最终无法获得保障。

       Can suspension target at a specific person or team? We might say that using suspension targeted at a specific person or team would be a bit far-fetched. It is understandable if it is used as a pushing strategy amid dilemma of negotiations. However, its legality can hardly be guaranteed in formal legal proceedings if the case is escalated.

(3)停工停产是否需要经过民主程序或集体协商?严格意义上,停工停产属于《劳动合同法》第四条界定的“直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度或者重大事项”或《公司法》第十八条界定的“经营方面的重大问题”,宜经过必要的民主程序,以便确保其程序合法性。但在实践处理中,对停工停产的合法性多从“稳定性”和“社会效果”角度考量,主要还是“个案判断”,既避免“一棒子打死”,也要坚持合情、合理、合法。

      Does the suspension need to go through the democratic procedure or collective bargaining? Strictly legally speaking, it is required to do so because suspension falls into the scope of "rules and regulations or major matters related to employees’ immediate interests" as defined in Article 4 of the Employment Contract Law (“ECL”) or "major business issues" as defined in Article 18 of the Company Law. However, in practice, its legitimacy is mainly judged on a case by case basis by taking the elements of social stability and social benefits into account so as to avoid a complete and rude denial to its application and stay in line with the principles of humanity, reasonableness and legitimacy.

(4)停工停产是否需要经过劳动行政部门的审批?法律上并无此明文规定,但在多地实践中,为了预防群体性事件,对于达到一定人数的潜在涉群体性争议,很多地方是要求进行非正式的照会或情况说明的。

       Is it necessary to secure approval from the labor administrative department for suspension in advance? There is no such explicit provision in law, but in practice, in order to prevent collective dispute incidents, unofficial explanations or filings are required in many localities if a certain number of employees may be affected.

3.4 某种程度上,对于人力成本的最终削减方案就是人员裁减,但此类行为却又是中国劳动法管制最严格的领域 [18] 。

      In some ways, redundancy will be the ultimate solution on cutting labor costs. However, such approach is also the most tightly regulated one under China’s employment and labor laws.

      结合我们以往的实操经验,《劳动合同法》第四十一条所规定的经济性裁员获得报备或批准的空间较小,在实践中,并非人员裁减的主流措施; 而批量性协商解除,辅之以第四十条第三款所规定的客观情况发生重大变化解除,才是主流实践。故,我们着重就“协商解除+客观情况重大变化解除”的组合方案予以论述。

      Based on our past experience, the economic retrenchment stipulated in Article 41 of the ECL is less likely to be approved. Therefore, it is not the mainstream approach in prevailing practice. The mass one-one mutual termination by batches and termination due to the occurrence of a major change stipulated in Article 40 (3) is widely adopted. Therefore, we will focus on the latter  in our discussion.

3.5 协商谈判成功的关键在于花了多少心思在对方身上,关注对方的猜忌与不安,而不是顾影自怜自己的“理直气壮”和“慷慨” [19] 。

      The success of negotiation lies in how much attention has been duly spent on the counterparty, focusing on employee’s reluctancy and anxiety, instead of on your own "uprightness" or "generosity".

      在协商解除过程中,出现“漫天要价、落地还钱”的情况是正常的,建议积极制定预案和反制措施。而且,除非预算“无限”充足,协商不成的概率也是存在的。因此,比起孤注一掷的“押宝”理想的协商后果,也必须“一颗红心二手准备”,永远准备一个Plan B [20] 。

      During negotiations, it is a commonplace for employees to demand more money beyond the scope as stipulated in the law. It is advisable to plan proactively and prepare countermeasures in advance. Unless the budget is unlimited, the possibility of failure to reach a consensus does exist. Therefore, in contrast to taking an all-or-nothing bet, it is necessary to prepare a Plan B as an alternative option.

      有效的沟通都是有结构、有流程的,即发和即兴的沟通只是“聊天”而已, 不能起到传递信息或者说服的目的。员工关系沟通的流程性和结构性是 尤其明显的,这也是法律要素被引入的重要原因。

      Communication will only be effective with a proper structure and process. In contrast, free communication without full preparation is just a small talk and cannot achieve the purpose of delivering proper information and  convince the employee finally.  The communication during employment  relationship matters  are always procedure- orientated and filled in with structures or designs clearly, and that is why the legal elements shall always be considered.

3.6 我们准备了如下检查清单以供用人单位在准备协商解除事务时参考:

     The following checklist is provided for the reference when preparing termination negotiations,

(1)背景调查材料及个人档案;

      Background investigation materials and personal files;

(2)劳动合同履行情况摘要(包含历任汇报路线);

      Summary of performance of employment contracts (including reporting lines in previous positions);

(3)与协商理由匹配的证明材料(即受到疫情影响且导致解除必须性的材料);

     Documents that match the reason for the negotiation (i.e., material that is supportive of the necessity to termination as a result of the epidemic);

(4)话术或谈判要点;

      Talking points;

(5)与其他参与人员的协调;

      Coordination with other participants;

(6)时间及地点;

       Time and venue;

(7)出价方案;

      Settlement proposal;

(8)协商解除协议或其他欲送达文书;

      Termination agreement or other documents to be served;

(9)交接事项/未结事项(特别是涉密事项);及

      Handover matters/outstanding matters (especially those related to confidentiality);

(10)安保/过激行为应对预案。

      Security/response plan for aggressive behaviors.

3.7 在协商不能达成一致的情况下,潜在的单方解除将成为谈判砝码或者Plan B。

      In the case that no agreement can be reached through negotiation, the potential unilateral termination will become a leverage or Plan B.

      根据《劳动合同法》四十条第三款,劳动合同订立时所依据的客观情况 发生重大变化,致使劳动合同无法履行,经用人单位与劳动者协商,未 能就变更劳动合同内容达成协议的,经提前三十日通知或支付代通知金, 可以单方解除劳动合同。

      According to Article 40 (3) of ECL, the employer may terminate the employment unilaterally, if any major changes occur to the objective circumstance based on which the employment contract was concluded, rendering this contract unperformable, and the employer can terminate the employee unilaterally if it fails to reach an agreement on amendment with him/her,  by giving a 30-day notice or make a payment in lieu of notice.

      根据证据规则,纵使疫情本身已经符合“不可抗力”的相关标准,若因疫情的原因进行人员裁减,用人单位仍需证明已经发生的疫情是如何使得原有劳动合同丧失履行基础的,即尚需证明其中的因果关系。

      According to the evidence rules, even if the outbreak has met the standard of force majeure, the employer still needs to prove how the coronavirus outbreak results in a loss of foundation to continuously perform the contract, i.e., the causation between the dismissal and the occurrence of the epidemic.

      特别需要注意的是,即使满足了“客观情况”发生了重大变化,也不意味着用人单位立即取得了解除权,在此之前,从“要式”法律行为的角度, 用人单位必须安排对“原合同的变更协商”;否则,会被认定因“程序瑕疵” 而界定为违法解除。

      It is important to note that even if the major change test is satisfied, it does not mean that the employer immediately has the right to terminate the contract. Prior to this, for following statutory procedural requirement, the employer should negotiate with the employee concerning the revision of the original contract first. Otherwise, it will be defined as wrongful termination on the grounds of procedural defects.

3.8 就客观情况发生重大变化的解除,如下流程或证据须妥善固定:

       In the event of termination as a result of a major change, the following procedures or evidence shall be properly fixed,

(1)员工知晓客观情况发生重大变化的事实;

      The employee is aware that the major change has occurred;

(2)员工知晓其岗位或部门已经撤销(或其他导致原劳动合同无法继续履行的事实);

      The employee knows that his/her position or the department has been eliminated (or other facts that lead to the failure to continue to perform the original employment contract);

(3)员工知晓用人单位为其安排了必要的内部招聘机会但未达成一致及再就业辅导(如有)。

      The employee knows that the employer has arranged internal opportunities (but they failed to reach an agreement) and provided outplacement service (if any).

3.9 再次提请用人单位垂注,如果涉及人数较多的(烦请进一步咨询当地劳动行政部门),虽非法定“裁员”,但是还是建议与所在地劳动行政部门事先进行妥善沟通。

      Please again note that, if the number of affected employees is substantial subject to the internal guidelines of the local labor authority, though it might not be the economic retrenchment defined by law, it is still highly recommended to properly communicate with the local labor administrative department beforehand.

免责及声明 Disclaimer

      本文仅为提供信息之目的,不构成正式法律意见,亦不得视为我们与读者或收件人之间建立了服务关系。若相关主管部门或人民法院嗣后发布相反意见或指示的,以相关意见或指示为准。

      This article is only for providing information purpose, not a formal legal opinion, and shall not be construed as any form of engagement between the reader and us. If there are any other or contrary opinions or instructions from competent authorities or people's courts subsequently, the applicable opinions or instructions shall prevail.

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